What does the Mormon Church teach that
does the Mormon Church teach that
was doing on the cross?
An Open Letter to Mormon Friends
We believe that through the
atonement of Christ, all mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and
ordinances of the Gospel. (The
Third Article of Faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints)*
We accept Christ’s
atonement by placing our faith in him. Through this faith, we repent of our
sins, are baptized, receive the Holy Ghost, and obey his commandments. We become
faithful disciples of Jesus Christ. We are forgiven and cleansed from sin
and prepared to return and to live forever with our Heavenly Father. ……
Christ did his part to atone for our sins. To make his atonement fully
effective in our lives, we must strive to obey him and repent of our sins.”(Gospel
Principles p.75, an official teaching manual by the Mormon Church)
Dear Mormon friends, the
above statements have led Evangelical Christians to believe that Mormon
teachings of the atonement of Christ are different from historical and biblical
Christianity. The atonement means “ ‘a making at one’ and points to a process of
bringing those who are estranged into a unity.”1 Throughout the Bible
the central question is “How can a sinful man ever be accepted by a Holy God?”
Even a Mormon Scripture, Moses 6:57, says, “…all men, everywhere, must repent,
or they can in nowise inherit the kingdom of God, for no unclean thing can dwell
there, or dwell in His presence.” No one is without sin (Romans 3: 10-12). Sin
is offensive to the holiness of God. The righteousness of God demands that sin’s
penalty is paid. Death must follow sin, physical and spiritual death. Beyond
this is where Christianity and Mormonism disagree. Both Evangelical Christians
and Latter-day Saints speak of the atonement of Christ, but what they mean by
the atonement is different. The points of contention are
the atonement of
Christ took place,
the demands of
justice are met and
the atonement has achieved
I have quoted the official
publications of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints such as
“Bible Dictionary”(1979), “Gospel Principles”(1997), “The
Life and Teachings of Jesus and His Apostles” (1979), and
“Preparing Exaltation” (1998), and non-official publications, “The
Miracle of Forgiveness” (1997), “Mormon Doctrine”(1979) and
“Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson”(1988), which are often quoted in the
official LDS publications, to clarify Mormon teachings of the atonement of
Christ and accurately compare and contrast them with biblical teachings.
One of the difficulties
Mormons and Evangelical Christians encounter when having dialogues is different
definition of the same terminology such as the Gospel, sin, salvation etc. In
order to have effective dialogues we need to define terms before comparing and
contrasting the atonement of Christ according to Mormonism with that of biblical
historical Christianity. Please note that the points in italics below are Mormon
Gospel of the Bible is not the same as the Gospel of Mormonism
Friends, where can the
definition of the Gospel be found in the Bible?
Corinthians 15: 1-5 says that Paul preached the death of Jesus for our sins
(v3), His burial and resurrection (v4). The Gospel is the story of the Person
and Work of Jesus Christ. Any ‘laws and ordinances’ in the Gospel required by
the LDS Third Articles of Faith*, cannot be found in the Bible. James
White says, “Paul preached a gospel that centred on the Person and Work of Jesus
Christ, not on the person and works of the sinful man.”2
2. What is sin?
Church teaches that “sin is the transgression of the divine law” but
we are not held responsible for sins against a law that we have not had an
opportunity to know.
According to the LDS
Church, Sin consists in willful wrong deeds. “… he cannot commit sin
unless he knows better than to do the thing in which sin consists. One must have
a conscience before he can violate it”4. Sin is
not man’s basic nature. Children are innocent until they reach accountability at
the age of eight.5
the Bible teaches
that we are
dead in sin and by nature objects of wrath
(Ephesians 2:1-3, Colossians 2:13)
Sin is an attitude of
rebellion against God. Human beings are born into the world with sin (Psalm 51:
5). Sin is sin
regardless of a person’s awareness.
David prays, “Who can understand his errors? Cleanse thou me from secret
Sin is not just what we do,
but how we are.
Outward sinful acts are merely symptoms of how sinful we are (Mark 7: 21-23).
Both inner thoughts and external acts render a person guilty (Matthew 5: 28). No
sin escapes God’s notice (Matthew 22: 18, Luke 6:8).
We may change what we do
by our own efforts, but we cannot change how we are. How can we sinful creatures
become right with a holy, perfect God? We are dead in sin and by nature objects
of wrath. A dead man cannot call for help.6 The plan of salvation
originates totally and completely with God. A full legal pardon for all our sin
is what we need. Jesus’ mission was that of seeking and saving the lost (Luke
19: 10). “Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners of whom I am chief.”
(1Timothy 1: 15) ( See Matthew 20: 28)
3. What is salvation?
Church teaches that salvation usually means resurrection.7
LDS salvation has two
levels: unconditional salvation and conditional salvation. Mormonism applies
Jesus’ atonement mainly to Adam’s sin. Jesus’ suffering wiped out the
effect of Adam’s sin, mainly permanent, physical death. All people will be
resurrected thanks to Jesus’ atonement. Then, there is the salvation that is to
be earned. (Individual salvation) At the Final Judgement people will be sent to
one of four places: the celestial, terrestrial or telestial kingdom or outer
darkness.8 In Mormonism eternal life is ‘exaltation’
which means living as a god in the highest level of the celestial kingdom.9
the Bible equates
salvation with eternal life.10
The Bible does not say
that resurrection of the unjust for their judgement is part of salvation.
The Bible does not say that the atonement was necessary for them to be
resurrected. The resurrection is both for the just and the unjust (Acts 24: 15).
The Bible mentions only two destinies after death: heaven or hell (Matthew
25:31-36). The Book of Mormon also says that the final state of the souls of
men is to dwell in the kingdom of God, or to be cast out to hell (1 Nephi
15:35, See Helaman 12:25-26, 3 Nephi 27:11,17, Alma 34:32-35).
Revelation 20: 11-15 tells us that there is a general resurrection when everyone
stands before the throne of judgement of God. Each is judged on his or her own
record. The verdict is life or death. Certainly death does not mean an
entry into either the terrestrial kingdom or telestial kingdom! We are not saved
by deeds, but deeds are seen as evidence of a person’s actual relationship with
God.11 The book of life contains the names of those who put trust in
Christ to have eternal life, exalted in God’s presence. We should make sure that
our names are written in the book of life!!
The Atonement of Christ
1. Where did the atonement of Christ take place?
Church teaches that Jesus’ atonement took place primarily in Gethsemane.12
Jesus’ atonement began in
the garden of Gethsemane when Christ’s sweat was “as it were great drops of
blood falling down to the ground.” (Luke 22: 44) “In the Garden of Gethsemane,
the weight of our sins caused him to feel such agony and heart break that he
bled from every pore. (See D&C 19:18-19) Later as he hung upon the
cross, Jesus suffered painful death by one of the most cruel methods known to
The Bible, however, does
not teach that Jesus’ sweating in the Garden of Gethsemane was part of
Luke 22: 44 does not say
that Jesus bled but “his sweat was like blood in the size of the drops
rather than in colour” (according to Marshall Howard). 14Without
shedding of blood there is no remission of sins. (Hebrews 9: 22) Note that this
passage does not say that without sweating of blood.15
Colossians 1: 20 says, “having made peace through the blood of his cross,
by him to reconcile all things to him.”
The cup (Luke 22:42) in
the Old Testament is associated with suffering and wrath. Jesus knew that He was
about to drink God’s wrath. Our God is a consuming fire (Hebrews 12:29). Jesus
is not only going to suffer and die, but he is going to suffer the consequences
of the judgement that was pronounced on sinners. An Australian preacher, Phillip
Jensen, said, “Jesus’ agony is not physical. Artists can only draw Jesus’
physical agony. Artists can emphasise the physicality of the crucifixion. …. The
New Testament hardly mentions Jesus’ physical pain. Rather it was spiritual.”16
The Heavenly Father and
Word (Jesus) lived in perfect relationship from eternity (John 1:1). Note that
Jesus in the Bible is not one who is in a long chain of gods who were once men
and progressed to godhood. He is not a brother of Lucifer. Jesus in the Bible is
the Creator; Jesus is Alpha and Omega, with no beginning and no end (Revelation
21:6,22:13). Now at his crucifixion perfect harmony was about to break down
because of your sin and my sin. We have never had a perfect relationship with
our family or friends. How can imperfect mortals like you and me understand
Jesus’ horror when he said, “My God, My God, why hast though forsaken me?”
2. How were the demands of justice satisfied?
Church teaches that Jesus has his part and we have our part. Jesus’ role in the
LDS plan of salvation is that of a creditor.
LDS Apostle Boyd K Packer
taught a parable of a man in huge debt and unable to pay it.17 The
creditor demanded justice (the creditor will take the debtor’s possession and
the debtor must go to prison) and the debtor asked for mercy. But the creditor
refused his plea, saying, “Mercy cannot rob justice.” Then a mediator intervened
and offered to pay the debt. Packer says:
The mediator turned then
to the debtor “ If I pay your debt, will you accept me as your creditor?”
“Oh yes, yes,” cried the
debtor. “You saved me from prison and show mercy to me.”
“Then”, said the
benefactor “ you will pay the debt to me and I will set the terms. It will not
be easy, but it will be possible. I will provide a way. You need not go to
…..The debtor, in turn,
had been extended mercy. Both laws stood fulfilled. Because there was a
mediator, justice had claimed its full share, and mercy was satisfied (Gospel
Here, the debtor
represents each of us, the creditor is the law of justice and the debtor’s
friend is Jesus.18 Thus, Jesus Mediator became Jesus our Creditor.
The friend intervened, not with a free gift of forgiveness, but a loan to be
parable is symbolic of the LDS understanding of what Jesus’ atonement has
achieved. Each devout Latter-day Saint is to work hard to pay off his/her debt
to their Saviour.20
the Bible teaches that
justice was satisfied.
Jesus became our substitute
to pay for our sins.
“Christ hath redeemed us from the curse that we sinners should have
borne.”(Galatians 3: 13) Our sins were laid on him. He has become sin, and we
have ceased to be sin or sinners. Jesus paid the debt we owe to God by dying on
the cross. He took the full force of God’s judgement on himself, so that
forgiveness and pardon might be available to you and me (Romans 3:24-26).
3. Was Christ’s atonement for the sins of believers incomplete or complete?
Church teaches that Christ’s atonement has not achieved full and compete
salvation outside the works of man
(exaltation) comes by obeying a number of particular LDS laws and ordinances.21
We must place our faith in Jesus, repent of our sins, be baptised, receive
the gift of the Holy Ghost, receive the ordinances of laying on of hands,
receive the Melchizedek priesthood, receive temple endowments, participate in
celestial marriage. We must tithe, observe the word of wisdom, search out our
kindred and perform the saving ordinances of the gospel for them, keep the
Sabbath day holy, attend sacrament meetings, have family and individual prayers
every day, teach the gospel to others by words and example, sustain the
prophets........ etc. etc (GP pp.303-304).
Then, how does the LDS
Church handle forgiveness? Forgiveness is a long, drawn-out process.22
Sin is removed by proper repentance and not ever repeating those sins,
then keeping the laws and ordinances of the gospel.23
repentance complete one must keep the commandments of the Lord.
(See D&C 1:32).24 When one repeats the same sin, which means that
he/she has not abandoned it and has failed to sincerely repent. “Those who
receive forgiveness and then repeat the sin are held accountable for their
former sins” (The Doctrine and Covenants 82:7). 25
the Bible teaches
that the finished work of Christ on the cross.
The Bible uses a number of
images, which describe the effects of the death of Christ, such as
justification, redemption, reconciliation and propitiation. All images tell us
that God’s saving work was achieved through the blood shedding, the
substitutionary sacrifice of Christ.26 The death of Christ actually
has accomplished justification, redemption, reconciliation and propitiation of
those who put trust in Christ through grace (Romans 3:24-26). There is nothing
more to do.
Romans 3:24-26 Being
justified freely by his grace
through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God hath set forth to be a
propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the
remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God, to declare, I
say, at this time his righteousness, that he might be just, and the justifier of
him who believeth in Jesus. (emphasis added)
‘Justify’ is a legal or
forensic term, belonging to the law court, meaning ‘acquit’, ‘declare
righteous,’ the opposite of condemn.27 When God justifies sinners, it
does not mean that we are not sinners or that we are inwardly righteous, but it
means that we are legally righteous.28 We are acquitted in
God’s court.29Justification is not the same as pardon. “Pardon is
negative, the remission of a penalty or debt; justification is the bestowal of a
righteous status, the sinner’s reinstatement in the favour and fellowship of
Colossians 2:13-14 tells
us that God has not only removed our debt, he has also destroyed the document on
which the debt was recorded.
And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he
quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespass; Blotting out the
handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and
took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross.
4. What is grace?
Where is the place for
grace in Mormonism? Does the LDS Church define grace differently?
Church teaches that
grace is God’s enabling power that allows people to “lay hold on eternal life
and exaltation after they have expended their own best efforts.”31
Grace is granted after our
deeds demonstrate our worthiness. “it is by grace that we are saved, after all
we can do.”(2 Nephi 25:23) “… deny yourselves of all ungodliness; and if
ye shall deny yourselves of all ungodliness, and love God with all your might,
mind and strength, then is his grace sufficient for you, that by his
grace ye may be perfect in Christ”( Moroni 10:32) (emphasis added)
granted to men proportionately as they conform to the standards of personal
righteousness that are part of the gospel plan ”(Bruce McConkie).32
the Bible teaches that grace is “undeserved blessing freely bestowed on man by
Grace and meritorious
works are mutually exclusive (Romans 11:6). According to McConkie, the more
righteous you, are the more grace will be granted, and the less righteous you
are, the less grace will be given. This teaching directly opposes
biblical teaching (Romans 5:20).
Moreover, the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin
abounded, grace did much more abound.
The Bible offers a better
solution to sin problems. God has promised to always forgive those who turn
to Him. “If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our
sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness”(1 John 1:9). Receive
forgiveness of all sins for all time and eternity by grace alone.
Ephesians 2:8-10 For by grace are ye saved through faith;
and that not of your yourselves; it is the gift of God: Not of works,
any man should boast.
For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God
hath before ordained that we should walk in them.
Grace is terribly
misunderstood in Mormon thinking. The LDS Church charges Evangelical Christians
that the Christian way is too easy when Paul says that we are saved by faith
through grace alone. Do you think that God’s grace means that we do not have to
do good works? Paul says, ”Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? God
forbid. How shall we, that are dead into sin, live any longer therein?”(Romans
6:1-2) (See Galatians 2:17). Good works will be the result of God’s grace to us,
not the cause of it.
5. The biblical Gospel is that no debts remain to be paid.
Matthew 18: 21-35
a king reckoned with his servant who owed phenomenal debt.34The
servant, his wife, their children and all his possession were to be sold, so
that payment could be made. This is what every sin deserves. The servant begs,
“Be patient with me.” The king was merciful. Out of pure compassion, he forgave
his servant. Our God is like that. We have been piling up sins for years, “like
debts: every day, every hour adds to them. They can never be paid. And God says,
‘I release you from the debt.’”35Out of pure mercy, He is very ready
to forgive those who acknowledge helplessness to get right with God by their own
effort, and who cry out for mercy.
Please note here that
Matthew is opposed to cheap grace.36Good
works are a vital part of our Christian walk after we receive eternal
life as a gift.
If we are
forgiven, we must prove that our lives have been changed.37 “We are
his workmanship, created in Christ unto good works, which God hath before
ordained that we should walk in them” (Ephesians 2:10, See Philippians 1:6,2:13)
Jesus teaches us that our willingness to forgive should be limitless. We are
exhorted to pray, “Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors” (Matthew 6:
12). God promised that he would not remember our sins. (Hebrews 10: 17, Psalm
32: 1-2) It is too good to be true! But, friends, it is true! Do you doubt God’s
promise? If so, you are saying that God is a liar.
I hope that you realise
that Evangelical Christians do not equate salvation with physical resurrection
but with eternal life. A weak view of sin leads to a weak view of what the
atonement of Christ has achieved. Sin is rebellion against God’s rule. We are
dead in sin, and by nature enemies of God. Salvation is totally and completely
of God. God’s saving work was achieved through the blood shedding, the
substitutionary sacrifice of Christ. The death of Christ on the cross makes
complete forgiveness of sins and legal pardon reality (not possibility). We have
been piling up sins, every day, every hour every minute. Our debts are
phenomenal. There is no time like the present to receive God’s forgiveness. Now
is the day of salvation (2 Corinthians 6:2). God is ready to forgive those who
acknowledge the impossibility of getting right with God by their own efforts and
who cry out for mercy. Spending eternity with our Heavenly Father is by Christ
alone, by grace alone, by faith alone. Or would you prefer to justify yourself
by your own merits before the throne judgement of God?
Summary 1: Mormonism
compared to the Bible: the Atonement of Christ
Salvation by grace is universal resurrection. Beyond this, one must
earn his or her place in heaven, in one of three different kingdoms.
The atonement of Christ took place primarily in the Garden of
Jesus has his part and we have our part. Jesus’ role in the LDS plan
of salvation is that of a creditor.
4. The Work of
Christ on the cross was insufficient. Ultimate salvation (exaltation*)
comes by obeying various LDS laws and ordinances.
means living as a god in the highest level of the celestial kingdom
1. Salvation means
eternal life. The Bible mentions only two destinies after death: eternal
life or everlasting punishment. (Matthew 25: 31-46)
2. The atonement of
Christ took place only on the cross.
3. Jesus became our
substitute to pay for our sins. Salvation from beginning to end is of
God and from God.
4. The Work of Christ
is complete for the believers through grace of God alone.
Summary 2: Mormon
teachings compared to the Bible
All the teachings,
laws, and ordinances of the LDS Church (Mormon Doctrine,p331).
Message of death of
Jesus and bodily resurrection for forgiveness of sins
(1 Corinthians 15:1-5)
Specific wrong deeds,
not man’s basic nature.
One must have a
conscience before he/she can violate it. (The Life and Teachings of Jesus
& His Apostles, p.410)
Sin is an attitude of
rebellion against God.
We were dead in sin
and by nature objects of wrath (Ephesians 2:1-3, Colossians 2:13).
Sin is sin regardless
of a person’s awareness (Psalm 19:12).
Forgiveness is granted
by proper repentance and not ever repeating those sins, then keeping
the laws and ordinances of the gospel.
God has promised to
forgive our sins when we turn to Him (1 John 1:9).
“And their sins and
iniquities will I remember no more.”(Hebrews 10:17).
Grace is God’s
enabling power that allows people to “lay hold on eternal life and
exaltation after they have expended their own efforts”(LDS Bible
Dictionary p.697). See 2 Nephi 25:23
“Grace is granted to
men proportionately as they conform to the standards of
Grace is a gift, which
is not earned or deserved. (Ephesians 2:8-9)
“Moreover, the law
entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did
much more abound.”(Romans 5:20)
Leon Morris, “ATONEMENT” in The
Illustrated Bible Dictionary (IVP, Leicester, 1994,p.147)
James White, Section VII
Salvation in “Verses Relevant to Sharing the Gospel with Mormons “(22nd
Jan.2000) James White runs the Alpha and Omega Ministry in Phoenix, AZ.
“One must have a conscience
before he/she can violate it, as made known through the conscience or by
revelation. A man sins when he violates his conscience, going contrary to light
and knowledge - not the light and knowledge that has come to his neighbour, but
that which has come to himself. … One may suffer painful consequences for only
blundering, but he cannot commit sin unless he knows better than to do the thing
in which the sin consists. One must have a conscience before he can violate it.”(The
Life and Teachings of Jesus and His Apostles,
Salt Lake City, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,1979, p.410)
The Doctrine and Covenants
James White, Letters to a Mormon
Elder (Bethany House, Minneapolis,1993, p.263)
For Latter-day Saints, being
resurrected is very important. Without resurrected bodies, they cannot progress
to godhood, as they could not give birth to spirit children. The Book of
Mormon goes one step further. Without the resurrection, we would have become
devils. (2 Nephi 9: 8-9)
Gospel Principles, pp.297-298
p.302, See The Doctrine and Covenants 131:1-4
Biblical salvation saves the
believers from sin and its consequences of eternal separation from God
(2Thessalonians 1:7-9) or the second death (Revelation 20:14-15) (Marvin Cowan,
Mormon Claims, Salt Lake City, Utah Christian Publication, 1997.p.89)
11. Life Application Bible (Zondervan,
Grand Rapids, 1991,p.2331)
12. The Life and Teachings of Jesus and His
Apostles, (Salt Lake City, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints,1979, p.172), Ezra Taft Benson, Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, (Salt
Lake City, Bookcraft, 1988,p.14),
However, LDS President Lorenzo Snow had a
different view of the Garden of Gethsemane. Lorenzo Snow said that Jesus’
suffering in the Garden was that Jesus knew how he was about to suffer on the
cross “He undoubtedly had seen persons nailed to the cross
because that method of execution was
common at that time, and He understood the
torture that such persons experienced for hours. He went by Himself in the
garden and prayed to his Father, if it were possible, that cup might pass from
Him; and His feelings were such that He sweat great drops of blood and in His
agony there was an angel sent to give Him comfort and strength.”
(Collected Discourses, Vol.3.p.362).
13.Gospel Principles, p.172
14. Marshall Howard, “Luke” in
New Bible Commentary (IVP, Leicester, 1994,p.1016).
15. Bill McKeever & Eric Johnson, Mormonism
101 (Baker Books, Grand Rapids, 2000,p.145)
Bill McKeever runs the Mormonism Research
Ministry in El Cajon, CA
16. Phillip Jensen, “Jesus Agony: Mark
14:32-42”(audio tape) (Matthias Media, Sydney, 6th September,
1999) Sydney Town Hall Mission, Phillip
Jensen is the Senior Minister at St. Matthias Anglican
Church, Centennial Park, Sydney
17. Gospel Principles pp.75-77
Preparing Exaltation (Utah,
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1998,p.19)
19. The Mormon Plan of Salvation (North
American Mission Board)
Past President Spencer Kimball
said, “It depends upon you whether or not you are forgiven, and when. It
could be weeks, it could be years, and it could be centuries before that happy
day when you have the positive assurance that the Lord has forgiven you. That
depends on your humility, your sincerity, your works, your attitudes (The
Miracle of Forgiveness, Bookcraft, Utah, 1969, pp.324-325).
Spencer Kimball said, “To every
forgiveness there is a condition…. The fasting, the prayers, the humility must
be equal to or greater than the sin. There must be a broken heart and a contrite
spirit…There must be tears and genuine change of heart. There must be conviction
of sin, abandonment of the evil, confession of the error to properly constituted
authorities of the Lord.”(The Miracle of Forgiveness, p.353)
Kimball said, “Living all the
commandments guarantees total forgiveness of sin and assures one of
exaltation.”(The Miracle of Forgiveness, pp208-209). He also said,
“Repentance means not only convict yourselves of the horror of the sin, but
to confess it, abandon it, and to restore to all who have been damaged to the
total extent possible; then spend the balance of your lives trying to live the
commandments of the Lord so he can eventually pardon you and cleanse you.”(The
Miracle of Forgiveness, quoted in Gospel Principles, pp124-126)
(emphasis is mine)
25. Read The Miracle of Forgiveness,
pp.169-170, p.360 “… go your ways and sin no more; but unto
that soul who sinneth shall the former sin return”(Doctrine and Covenant
James White, Letters to a Mormon
Elder (Bethany House, Minneapolis, 1993,p.232)
James Packer, “JUSTIFICATIOIN”
in The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p.841
John Stott, The Cross of Christ,
(IVP, Leicester, 1989,p.190)
John Stott, The Message of
Romans BST (IVP, Leicester, 1994,p.111)
(Salt Lake City, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1979,p.697)
Bruce McConkie, Mormon Doctrine
(Bookcraft, Utah, 1998,p.339)
P.H.Hughes, ed. Walter Elwell,
“Grace” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Baker Book House,
Grand Rapids, 1994,p.479)
Michael Green, The Message of
Matthew BST (IVP, Leicester, 1998,P198)
Mormon Outreach Ministries, Sydney