Article

 



What does the Mormon Church teach that

What does the Mormon Church teach that

Jesus was doing on the cross?

                                                                                

An Open Letter to Mormon Friends

 

We believe that through the atonement of Christ, all mankind may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the Gospel. (The Third Article of Faith of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints)*

 

We accept Christ’s atonement by placing our faith in him. Through this faith, we repent of our sins, are baptized, receive the Holy Ghost, and obey his commandments. We become faithful disciples of Jesus Christ.     We are forgiven and cleansed from sin and prepared to return and to live forever with our Heavenly Father. …… Christ did his part to atone for our sins. To make his atonement fully effective in our lives, we must strive to obey him and repent of our sins.”(Gospel Principles p.75, an official teaching manual by the Mormon Church)   (Emphasis mine)

 

Dear Mormon friends, the above statements have led Evangelical Christians to believe that Mormon teachings of the atonement of Christ are different from historical and biblical Christianity. The atonement means “ ‘a making at one’ and points to a process of bringing those who are estranged into a unity.”1 Throughout the Bible the central question is “How can a sinful man ever be accepted by a Holy God?” Even a Mormon Scripture, Moses 6:57, says, “…all men, everywhere, must repent, or they can in nowise inherit the kingdom of God, for no unclean thing can dwell there, or dwell in His presence.” No one is without sin (Romans 3: 10-12). Sin is offensive to the holiness of God. The righteousness of God demands that sin’s penalty is paid. Death must follow sin, physical and spiritual death. Beyond this is where Christianity and Mormonism disagree. Both Evangelical Christians and Latter-day Saints speak of the atonement of Christ, but what they mean by the atonement is different. The points of contention are where the atonement of Christ took place, how the demands of justice are met and what the atonement has achieved

 

I have quoted the official publications of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints such as “Bible Dictionary”(1979), “Gospel Principles”(1997), The Life and Teachings of Jesus and His Apostles” (1979), and “Preparing Exaltation” (1998), and non-official publications, “The Miracle of Forgiveness” (1997), “Mormon Doctrine”(1979) and “Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson”(1988), which are often quoted in the official LDS publications, to clarify Mormon teachings of the atonement of Christ and accurately compare and contrast them with biblical teachings.

One of the difficulties Mormons and Evangelical Christians encounter when having dialogues is different definition of the same terminology such as the Gospel, sin, salvation etc.  In order to have effective dialogues we need to define terms before comparing and contrasting the atonement of Christ according to Mormonism with that of biblical historical Christianity. Please note that the points in italics below are Mormon teachings.

 

1.The Gospel of the Bible is not the same as the Gospel of Mormonism

Friends, where can the definition of the Gospel be found in the Bible? 1 Corinthians 15: 1-5 says that Paul preached the death of Jesus for our sins (v3), His burial and resurrection (v4). The Gospel is the story of the Person and Work of Jesus Christ. Any ‘laws and ordinances’ in the Gospel required by the LDS Third Articles of Faith*, cannot be found in the Bible. James White says, “Paul preached a gospel that centred on the Person and Work of Jesus Christ, not on the person and works of the sinful man.”2

 

2. What is sin?

 

The Mormon Church teaches that “sin is the transgression of the divine law” but we are not held responsible for sins against a law that we have not had an opportunity to know. 3

According to the LDS Church, Sin consists in willful wrong deeds. “… he cannot commit sin unless he knows better than to do the thing in which sin consists. One must have a conscience before he can violate it”4. Sin is not man’s basic nature. Children are innocent until they reach accountability at the age of eight.5

By contrast, the Bible teaches that we are dead in sin and by nature objects of wrath (Ephesians 2:1-3, Colossians 2:13)

Sin is an attitude of rebellion against God. Human beings are born into the world with sin (Psalm 51: 5).  Sin is sin regardless of a person’s awareness. David prays, “Who can understand his errors? Cleanse thou me from secret faults”(Psalm 19:12). Sin is not just what we do, but how we are. Outward sinful acts are merely symptoms of how sinful we are (Mark 7: 21-23).  Both inner thoughts and external acts render a person guilty (Matthew 5: 28). No sin escapes God’s notice (Matthew 22: 18, Luke 6:8).

We may change what we do by our own efforts, but we cannot change how we are. How can we sinful creatures become right with a holy, perfect God?  We are dead in sin and by nature objects of wrath. A dead man cannot call for help.6 The plan of salvation originates totally and completely with God. A full legal pardon for all our sin is what we need. Jesus’ mission was that of seeking and saving the lost (Luke 19: 10). “Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners of whom I am chief.” (1Timothy 1: 15) ( See Matthew 20: 28)

3.  What is salvation?

The Mormon Church teaches that salvation usually means resurrection.7

LDS salvation has two levels: unconditional salvation and conditional salvation. Mormonism applies Jesus’ atonement mainly to Adam’s sin. Jesus’ suffering wiped out the effect of Adam’s sin, mainly permanent, physical death.  All people will be resurrected thanks to Jesus’ atonement. Then, there is the salvation that is to be earned. (Individual salvation)  At the Final Judgement people will be sent to one of four places: the celestial, terrestrial or telestial kingdom or outer darkness.8 In Mormonism eternal life is ‘exaltation’ which means living as a god in the highest level of the celestial kingdom.9

By contrast, the Bible equates salvation with eternal life.10

The Bible does not say that resurrection of the unjust for their judgement is part of salvation. The Bible does not say that the atonement was necessary for them to be resurrected. The resurrection is both for the just and the unjust (Acts 24: 15). The Bible mentions only two destinies after death: heaven or hell (Matthew 25:31-36). The Book of Mormon also says that the final state of the souls of men is to dwell in the kingdom of God, or to be cast out to hell (1 Nephi 15:35, See Helaman 12:25-26, 3 Nephi 27:11,17, Alma 34:32-35). Revelation 20: 11-15 tells us that there is a general resurrection when everyone stands before the throne of judgement of God. Each is judged on his or her own record. The verdict is life or death. Certainly death does not mean an entry into either the terrestrial kingdom or telestial kingdom! We are not saved by deeds, but deeds are seen as evidence of a person’s actual relationship with God.11 The book of life contains the names of those who put trust in Christ to have eternal life, exalted in God’s presence. We should make sure that our names are written in the book of life!!

The Atonement of Christ

1. Where did  the atonement of Christ take place?

The Mormon Church teaches that Jesus’ atonement took place primarily in Gethsemane.12

Jesus’ atonement began in the garden of Gethsemane when Christ’s sweat was “as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.” (Luke 22: 44) “In the Garden of Gethsemane, the weight of our sins caused him to feel such agony and heart break that he bled from every pore. (See D&C 19:18-19)  Later as he hung upon the cross, Jesus suffered painful death by one of the most cruel methods known to man.” 13

The Bible, however, does not teach that Jesus’ sweating in the Garden of Gethsemane was part of Christ’s atonement.

Luke 22: 44 does not say that Jesus bled but “his sweat was like blood in the size of the drops rather than in colour” (according to Marshall Howard). 14Without shedding of blood there is no remission of sins. (Hebrews 9: 22)  Note that this passage does not say that without sweating of blood.15   Colossians 1: 20 says, “having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things to him.”

The cup (Luke 22:42) in the Old Testament is associated with suffering and wrath. Jesus knew that He was about to drink God’s wrath. Our God is a consuming fire (Hebrews 12:29). Jesus is not only going to suffer and die, but he is going to suffer the consequences of the judgement that was pronounced on sinners. An Australian preacher, Phillip Jensen, said, “Jesus’ agony is not physical. Artists can only draw Jesus’ physical agony. Artists can emphasise the physicality of the crucifixion. …. The New Testament hardly mentions Jesus’ physical pain. Rather it was spiritual.”16

The Heavenly Father and Word (Jesus) lived in perfect relationship from eternity (John 1:1). Note that Jesus in the Bible is not one who is in a long chain of gods who were once men and progressed to godhood. He is not a brother of Lucifer. Jesus in the Bible is the Creator; Jesus is Alpha and Omega, with no beginning and no end (Revelation 21:6,22:13).  Now at his crucifixion perfect harmony was about to break down because of your sin and my sin. We have never had a perfect relationship with our family or friends. How can imperfect mortals like you and me understand Jesus’ horror when he said, “My God, My God, why hast though forsaken me?” (Matthew 15:34).

2.  How were the demands of justice satisfied?

The Mormon Church teaches that Jesus has his part and we have our part. Jesus’ role in the LDS plan of salvation is that of a creditor.

LDS Apostle Boyd K Packer taught a parable of a man in huge debt and unable to pay it.17 The creditor demanded justice (the creditor will take the debtor’s possession and the debtor must go to prison) and the debtor asked for mercy. But the creditor refused his plea, saying, “Mercy cannot rob justice.” Then a mediator intervened and offered to pay the debt. Packer says:

The mediator turned then to the debtor “ If I pay your debt, will you accept me as your creditor?”

“Oh yes, yes,” cried the debtor. “You saved me from prison and show mercy to me.”

“Then”, said the benefactor “ you will pay the debt to me and I will set the terms. It will not be easy, but it will be possible. I will provide a way. You need not go to prison.”

…..The debtor, in turn, had been extended mercy. Both laws stood fulfilled. Because there was a mediator, justice had claimed its full share, and mercy was satisfied  (Gospel Principles p.77)

Here, the debtor represents each of us, the creditor is the law of justice and the debtor’s friend is Jesus.18 Thus, Jesus Mediator became Jesus our Creditor. The friend intervened, not with a free gift of forgiveness, but a loan to be paid.19This parable is symbolic of the LDS understanding of what Jesus’ atonement has achieved. Each devout Latter-day Saint is to work hard to pay off his/her debt to their Saviour.20

By contrast, the Bible teaches that justice was satisfied.

How?  Jesus became our substitute to pay for our sins. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse that we sinners should have borne.”(Galatians 3: 13) Our sins were laid on him. He has become sin, and we have ceased to be sin or sinners. Jesus paid the debt we owe to God by dying on the cross. He took the full force of God’s judgement on himself, so that forgiveness and pardon might be available to you and me (Romans 3:24-26).

3. Was Christ’s atonement for the sins of believers incomplete or complete?

The Mormon Church teaches that Christ’s atonement has not achieved full and compete salvation outside the works of man (Gospel Principles p.75).

Ultimate salvation (exaltation) comes by obeying a number of particular LDS laws and ordinances.21 We must place our faith in Jesus, repent of our sins, be baptised, receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, receive the ordinances of laying on of hands, receive the Melchizedek priesthood, receive temple endowments, participate in celestial marriage. We must tithe, observe the word of wisdom, search out our kindred and perform the saving ordinances of the gospel for them, keep the Sabbath day holy, attend sacrament meetings, have family and individual prayers every day, teach the gospel to others by words and example, sustain the prophets........ etc. etc (GP pp.303-304).

Then, how does the LDS Church handle forgiveness?  Forgiveness is a long, drawn-out process.22 Sin is removed by proper repentance and not ever repeating those sins, then keeping the laws and ordinances of the gospel.23

To make repentance complete one must keep the commandments of the Lord. (See D&C 1:32).24 When one repeats the same sin, which means that he/she has not abandoned it and has failed to sincerely repent. “Those who receive forgiveness and then repeat the sin are held accountable for their former sins” (The Doctrine and Covenants 82:7). 25

By contrast, the Bible teaches that the finished work of Christ on the cross.

The Bible uses a number of images, which describe the effects of the death of Christ, such as justification, redemption, reconciliation and propitiation.  All images tell us that God’s saving work was achieved through the blood shedding, the substitutionary sacrifice of Christ.26 The death of Christ actually has accomplished justification, redemption, reconciliation and propitiation of those who put trust in Christ through grace (Romans 3:24-26). There is nothing more to do.

Romans 3:24-26 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God, to declare, I say, at this time his righteousness, that he might be just, and the justifier of him who believeth in Jesus. (emphasis added)

‘Justify’ is a legal or forensic term, belonging to the law court, meaning ‘acquit’, ‘declare righteous,’ the opposite of condemn.27 When God justifies sinners, it does not mean that we are not sinners or that we are inwardly righteous, but it means that we are legally righteous.28 We are acquitted in God’s court.29Justification is not the same as pardon. “Pardon is negative, the remission of a penalty or debt; justification is the bestowal of a righteous status, the sinner’s reinstatement in the favour and fellowship of God.” 30  

Colossians 2:13-14 tells us that God has not only removed our debt, he has also destroyed the document on which the debt was recorded.

Colossians 2:13-14 And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespass; Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross.

4. What is grace?

Where is the place for grace in Mormonism?  Does the LDS Church define grace differently?

The Mormon Church teaches that grace is God’s enabling power that allows people to “lay hold on eternal life and exaltation after they have expended their own best efforts.”31

 

Grace is granted after our deeds demonstrate our worthiness. “it is by grace that we are saved, after all we can do.”(2 Nephi 25:23) “… deny yourselves of all ungodliness; and if ye shall deny yourselves of all ungodliness, and love God with all your might, mind and strength, then is his grace sufficient for you, that by his grace ye may be perfect in Christ”( Moroni 10:32) (emphasis added)

 

Grace is granted to men proportionately as they conform to the standards of personal righteousness that are part of the gospel plan ”(Bruce McConkie).32

 

By contrast, the Bible teaches that grace is “undeserved blessing freely bestowed on man by God.”33

Grace and meritorious works are mutually exclusive (Romans 11:6).  According to McConkie, the more righteous you, are the more grace will be granted, and the less righteous you are, the less grace will be given. This teaching directly opposes biblical teaching (Romans 5:20).

Romans 5:20 Moreover, the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound.

The Bible offers a better solution to sin problems. God has promised to always forgive those who turn to Him. “If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness”(1 John 1:9). Receive forgiveness of all sins for all time and eternity by grace alone.

Ephesians 2:8-10 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of your yourselves; it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them(Emphasis mine)

Grace is terribly misunderstood in Mormon thinking. The LDS Church charges Evangelical Christians that the Christian way is too easy when Paul says that we are saved by faith through grace alone. Do you think that God’s grace means that we do not have to do good works? Paul says, ”Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? God forbid. How shall we, that are dead into sin, live any longer therein?”(Romans 6:1-2) (See Galatians 2:17). Good works will be the result of God’s grace to us, not the cause of it.

5. The biblical Gospel is that no debts remain to be paid.

In Matthew 18: 21-35 a king reckoned with his servant who owed phenomenal debt.34The servant, his wife, their children and all his possession were to be sold, so that payment could be made. This is what every sin deserves. The servant begs, “Be patient with me.” The king was merciful. Out of pure compassion, he forgave his servant. Our God is like that. We have been piling up sins for years, “like debts: every day, every hour adds to them. They can never be paid. And God says, ‘I release you from the debt.’”35Out of pure mercy, He is very ready to forgive those who acknowledge helplessness to get right with God by their own effort, and who cry out for mercy.

Please note here that Matthew is opposed to cheap grace.36Good works are a vital part of our Christian walk after we receive eternal life as a gift. If we are forgiven, we must prove that our lives have been changed.37 “We are his workmanship, created in Christ unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them” (Ephesians 2:10, See Philippians 1:6,2:13) Jesus teaches us that our willingness to forgive should be limitless. We are exhorted to pray, “Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors” (Matthew 6: 12). God promised that he would not remember our sins. (Hebrews 10: 17, Psalm 32: 1-2) It is too good to be true! But, friends, it is true! Do you doubt God’s promise? If so, you are saying that God is a liar.

 

Conclusion

I hope that you realise that Evangelical Christians do not equate salvation with physical resurrection but with eternal life. A weak view of sin leads to a weak view of what the atonement of Christ has achieved. Sin is rebellion against God’s rule. We are dead in sin, and by nature enemies of God. Salvation is totally and completely of God. God’s saving work was achieved through the blood shedding, the substitutionary sacrifice of Christ. The death of Christ on the cross makes complete forgiveness of sins and legal pardon reality (not possibility). We have been piling up sins, every day, every hour every minute. Our debts are phenomenal. There is no time like the present to receive God’s forgiveness. Now is the day of salvation (2 Corinthians 6:2). God is ready to forgive those who acknowledge the impossibility of getting right with God by their own efforts and who cry out for mercy. Spending eternity with our Heavenly Father is by Christ alone, by grace alone, by faith alone. Or would you prefer to justify yourself by your own merits before the throne judgement of God?  ES

                            

Summary 1: Mormonism compared to the Bible: the Atonement of Christ

Mormonism

1.      Salvation by grace is universal resurrection. Beyond this, one must earn his or her place in heaven, in one of three different kingdoms.

2.      The atonement of Christ took place primarily in the Garden of Gethsemane

3.      Jesus has his part and we have our part. Jesus’ role in the LDS plan of salvation is that of a creditor.

4.   The Work of Christ on the cross was insufficient.  Ultimate salvation (exaltation*) comes by obeying various LDS laws and ordinances.

             *Exaltation means living as a god in the highest level of the celestial kingdom

The Bible

1.  Salvation means eternal life.  The Bible  mentions only two destinies after death: eternal life or everlasting punishment. (Matthew 25: 31-46)

2. The atonement of Christ took place only on the cross.

3. Jesus became our substitute to pay for our sins. Salvation from beginning to end is of God and from God.

4. The Work of Christ is complete for the  believers  through grace of God alone.

Summary 2: Mormon teachings compared to the Bible

Mormonism

The Bible

The gospel

All the teachings, laws, and ordinances of the LDS Church (Mormon Doctrine,p331).

The gospel

Message of death of Jesus and bodily resurrection for forgiveness of sins

                           (1 Corinthians 15:1-5)

Sin

 Specific wrong deeds, not man’s basic nature.

 

One must have a conscience before he/she can violate it. (The Life and Teachings of Jesus & His Apostles, p.410)

Sin

Sin is an attitude of rebellion against God.

 

We were dead in sin and by nature objects of wrath (Ephesians 2:1-3, Colossians 2:13).

 

Sin is sin regardless of a person’s awareness (Psalm 19:12).

Forgiveness

Forgiveness is granted by proper repentance and not ever repeating those sins, then keeping the laws and ordinances of the gospel.

 

Forgiveness

God has promised to forgive our sins when we turn to Him (1 John 1:9).

“And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.”(Hebrews 10:17).

Grace

Grace is God’s enabling power that allows people to “lay hold on eternal life and exaltation after they have expended their own efforts”(LDS Bible Dictionary p.697).         See 2 Nephi 25:23

 

“Grace is granted to men proportionately as they conform to the standards of

personal righteousness.” (MD p.339)

Grace

Grace is a gift, which is not earned or deserved.  (Ephesians 2:8-9)

 

 

“Moreover, the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound.”(Romans 5:20)

Footnotes

 

1.        Leon Morris, “ATONEMENT” in The Illustrated Bible Dictionary (IVP, Leicester, 1994,p.147)

2.        James White, Section VII Salvation in “Verses Relevant to Sharing the Gospel with Mormons “(22nd Jan.2000) James White runs the Alpha and Omega Ministry in Phoenix, AZ.

3.        One must have a conscience before he/she can violate it, as made known through the conscience or by revelation. A man sins when he violates his conscience, going contrary to light and knowledge - not the light and knowledge that has come to his neighbour, but that which has come to himself. … One may suffer painful consequences for only blundering, but he cannot commit sin unless he knows better than to do the thing in which the sin consists. One must have a conscience before he can violate it.”(The Life and Teachings of Jesus and His Apostles, Salt Lake City, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,1979, p.410)

4.        Ibid.

5.        The Doctrine and Covenants 29:46-47

6.        James White, Letters to a Mormon Elder (Bethany House, Minneapolis,1993, p.263)

7.      For Latter-day Saints, being resurrected is very important. Without resurrected bodies, they cannot progress to godhood, as they could not give birth to spirit children. The Book of Mormon goes one step further. Without the resurrection, we would have become devils. (2 Nephi 9: 8-9)

8.      Gospel Principles, pp.297-298

9.      Gospel Principles p.302, See The Doctrine and Covenants 131:1-4

10.   Biblical salvation saves the believers from sin and its consequences of eternal separation from God (2Thessalonians 1:7-9) or the second death (Revelation 20:14-15) (Marvin Cowan, Mormon Claims, Salt Lake City, Utah Christian Publication, 1997.p.89)

11.  Life Application Bible (Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1991,p.2331)

12. The Life and Teachings of Jesus and His Apostles, (Salt Lake City, The Church of Jesus Christ of          Latter-day Saints,1979, p.172),   Ezra Taft Benson, Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, (Salt Lake City, Bookcraft, 1988,p.14),

  However, LDS President Lorenzo Snow had a different view of the Garden of Gethsemane. Lorenzo   Snow said that Jesus’ suffering in the Garden was that Jesus knew how he was about to suffer on the cross “He undoubtedly had seen persons nailed to the cross because that method of execution was      

common at that time, and He understood the torture that such persons experienced for hours. He went by Himself in the garden and prayed to his Father, if it were possible, that cup might pass from Him; and His feelings were such that He sweat great drops of blood and in His agony there was an angel sent to give Him comfort and strength.” (Collected Discourses, Vol.3.p.362).

13.Gospel Principles, p.172

14Marshall Howard, “Luke” in New Bible Commentary (IVP, Leicester, 1994,p.1016).

15. Bill McKeever & Eric Johnson, Mormonism 101 (Baker Books, Grand Rapids, 2000,p.145)

      Bill McKeever runs the Mormonism Research Ministry in El Cajon, CA

16. Phillip Jensen, “Jesus Agony: Mark 14:32-42”(audio tape) (Matthias Media, Sydney, 6th September,

      1999) Sydney Town Hall Mission, Phillip Jensen is the Senior Minister at St. Matthias Anglican

       Church, Centennial Park, Sydney

17. Gospel Principles pp.75-77

18.     Preparing Exaltation (Utah, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1998,p.19)

19. The Mormon Plan of Salvation (North American Mission Board)

20.     Ibid

21.     Gospel Principles pp303-304

22.     Past President Spencer Kimball said, “It depends upon you whether or not you are forgiven, and when. It could be weeks, it could be years, and it could be centuries before that happy day when you have the positive assurance that the Lord has forgiven you. That depends on your humility, your sincerity, your works, your attitudes (The Miracle of Forgiveness, Bookcraft, Utah, 1969, pp.324-325).

23.     Spencer Kimball said, “To every forgiveness there is a condition…. The fasting, the prayers, the humility must be equal to or greater than the sin. There must be a broken heart and a contrite spirit…There must be tears and genuine change of heart. There must be conviction of sin, abandonment of the evil, confession of the error to properly constituted authorities of the Lord.”(The Miracle of Forgiveness, p.353)

24.     Kimball said, “Living all the commandments guarantees total forgiveness of sin and assures one of exaltation.”(The Miracle of Forgiveness, pp208-209).  He also said, “Repentance means not only convict yourselves of the horror of the sin, but to confess it, abandon it, and to restore to all who have been damaged to the total extent possible; then spend the balance of your lives trying to live the commandments of the Lord so he can eventually pardon you and cleanse you.”(The Miracle of Forgiveness, quoted in Gospel Principles, pp124-126) (emphasis is mine)

25. Read The Miracle of Forgiveness, pp.169-170, p.360      “… go your ways and sin no more; but unto that  soul who sinneth shall the former sin return”(Doctrine and Covenant 82:7)

26.     James White, Letters to a Mormon Elder (Bethany House, Minneapolis, 1993,p.232)

27.     James Packer, “JUSTIFICATIOIN” in The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p.841

28.     John Stott, The Cross of Christ, (IVP, Leicester, 1989,p.190)

29.     John Stott, The Message of Romans BST (IVP, Leicester, 1994,p.111)

30.     Ibid, p.110

31.     Bible Dictionary (Salt Lake City, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1979,p.697)

32.     Bruce McConkie, Mormon Doctrine (Bookcraft, Utah, 1998,p.339)

33.     P.H.Hughes, ed. Walter Elwell, “Grace” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1994,p.479)

34.     Michael Green, The Message of Matthew BST (IVP, Leicester, 1998,P198)

35.     Ibid, p199

36.     Ibid

37.     Ibid

 

Copyrightã2003 Mormon Outreach Ministries, Sydney